AskDefine | Define calculation

Dictionary Definition

calculation

Noun

1 the procedure of calculating; determining something by mathematical or logical methods [syn: computation, computing]
2 problem solving that involves numbers or quantities [syn: computation, figuring, reckoning]
3 planning something carefully and intentionally; "it was the deliberation of his act that was insulting" [syn: deliberation]

User Contributed Dictionary

English

Pronunciation

Noun

calculation (countable and uncountable; plural calculations)
  1. The act or process of calculating.
  2. The result of calculating.
  3. Reckoning, estimate.
    By my calculation, we should be there by midnight.
  4. An expectation based on circumstances.

Synonyms

Translations

act or process of calculating
result of calculating
reckoning, estimate
expectation based on circumstances

Extensive Definition

A calculation is a deliberate process for transforming one or more inputs into one or more results, with variable change.
The term is used in a variety of senses, from the very definite arithmetical calculation using an algorithm to the vague heuristics of calculating a strategy in a competition or calculating the chance of a successful relationship between two people.
Multiplying 7 by 8 is a simple algorithmic calculation.
Estimating the fair price for financial instruments using the Black-Scholes model is a complex algorithmic calculation.
Statistical estimations of the likely election results from opinion polls also involve algorithmic calculations, but give results that are ranges of possibilities rather than exact answers.
Deciding the best way to build a relationship with a member of the opposite sex may also result from a calculation, but is not definite, predictable, nor even clearly defined. This indefinite application of the term gives it a second area of meaning apart from the mathematical senses mentioned above.
To calculate means to ascertain by computing. The English word derives from the Latin calculus, which originally meant a small stone in the gall-bladder (from Latin calx). It also meant a pebble used for calculating, or a small stone used as a counter in an abacus (Latin abacus, Greek abax). The abacus was an instrument used by Greeks and Romans for arithmetic calculations, preceding the slide-rule and the electronic calculator, and consisted of perforated pebbles sliding on an iron bars.
calculation in German: Rechnen
calculation in Spanish: Cálculo aritmético
calculation in French: Calcul (mathématiques)
calculation in Galician: Cálculo
calculation in Korean: 계산
calculation in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Calculo (mathematica)
calculation in Italian: Calcolo (matematica)
calculation in Hebrew: חישוב
calculation in Latin: Calculus
calculation in Japanese: 計算
calculation in Russian: Вычисление
calculation in Volapük: Kalkulam
calculation in Contenese: 計算
calculation in Chinese: 计算

Synonyms, Antonyms and Related Words

adding, aforethought, amount, answer, appraisal, appraisement, approach, approximation, arithmetic, arrangement, assessment, assize, assizement, attack, blueprint, blueprinting, calculatedness, calculus, canniness, care, careful consideration, carefulness, casting, caution, cautiousness, charting, ciphering, circumspection, computation, conception, contrivance, correction, count, counting, deliberate stages, deliberateness, deliberation, design, determination, determining, device, discretion, disposition, enterprise, envisagement, estimate, estimation, evaluation, expectation, express intention, expressness, figure, figuring, footing, forecast, foresight, forethought, game, gauging, gingerliness, graphing, ground plan, guardedness, guidelines, hedge, hedging, heed, heedfulness, hesitation, idea, instrumentation, intention, intentionality, judiciousness, layout, lineup, long-range plan, mapping, master plan, measure, measurement, measuring, mensuration, method, methodology, metric system, mindfulness, operations research, organization, pawkiness, plan, planning, planning function, prearrangement, preconsideration, predeliberation, predetermination, prediction, premeditation, preresolution, prior consultation, procedure, product, program, program of action, prudence, prudentialness, quantification, quantization, rating, rationalization, reckoning, regardfulness, result, safeness, safety first, schedule, schema, schematism, schematization, scheme, scheme of arrangement, setup, slowness to act, solicitude, strategic plan, strategy, survey, surveying, system, systematization, tactical plan, tactics, telemetering, telemetry, tentativeness, the big picture, the picture, thoroughness, totaling, toting, triangulation, uncommunicativeness, unprecipitateness, valuation, wariness, way, working plan
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